# INTRODUCTION

Machine learning algorithms can solve a fundamental problem and also a complex problem. Machine learning models can learn by themselves using the training data and perform their predictions on the test data based on the learning. Based on the problem, we can select which machine learning model to use. For any machine learning model, its performance depends on learning.

# Basic hyperparameter search techniques

• Grid Search: In this technique, we will define the values for all the hyperparameters such that it creates a grid of d dimensions where each of these dimensions denotes a hyperparameter. The model will train each combination to present in the grid and take that combination that gives the best result.
• Random Search: Random search works the same as the grid search except that it randomly picks the points from the configuration space we defined for the hyperparameters.
• When the number of hyperparameters in a model is increased, then the configuration space becomes large. As a result, training the model on the various combinations of hyperparameters becomes intractable and not feasible.
• A model's training on one set of hyperparameters is performed in isolation with the other set of hyperparameters. Because of that, these technique does not learn anything from the previous experiments.
• These techniques require a lot of computational resources as well as time. Even then, it is not sure whether they give the best set of hyperparameters or not.

# Bayesian Optimization

Bayesian Optimization is a hyperparameter search technique that uses the concept of Bayes theorem to guide the search to minimize or maximize an objective function f. This technique creates a probabilistic model, which is also known as the surrogate model and tries to mimic the objective function. After every experiment, the surrogate model learns and becomes more confident that wherein the configuration space, the next set of hyperparameters should experiment, which gives the better performance. There are two major components in this technique: surrogate model, acquisition function.

# Genetic Algorithm: Evolutionary Algorithm

Evolutionary Algorithm based on the natural concepts of biological evolution. They consider a set of possible candidate solutions or a population that evolves and gives a better result. Evolutionary Algorithms are also known as a population-based optimization algorithm. The Genetic algorithm is well known evolutionary algorithm. It assumes each candidate solution as a chromosome, and in each chromosome, the genes denote the hyperparameters. So the number of genes in each chromosome denotes the number of hyperparameters in the model. Initially, the genetic algorithm will choose some set of chromosomes randomly from the predefined configuration space. Then the model is evaluated on these candidates, and some of the best chromosomes will be selected based on the predefined fitness function. Finally, these chromosomes will be mutated and crossover to generate the new population and this evolution continues till the best solution is not found, or the resources are not exhausted.

• Single point crossover: A single point is chosen uniformly in two chromosomes, and then either the values of the right or left part of the chromosomes are swapped.
• Double point crossover: Two points are chosen uniformly, and the values in between these points are swapped.
• Uniform crossover: To make a new offspring, for each value of the gene in the new offspring, one of the values from both the parent chromosomes is chosen uniformly.

# Implementation

I have implemented Bayesian Optimization and Genetic Algorithm in two settings: a statistical machine learning algorithm and a deep neural network architecture. I have used Random Forest Classifier as the statistical machine learning algorithm and a deep feed-forward neural network architecture. Both the models are used for the classification task. For this task, I have used the MNIST datasets.

• To implement the Random Forest Classifier model, I have used the sklearn.ensemble.RandomForestClassifier method.
• I have used the hyperopt library for implementing Bayesian Optimization for Random Forest Classifier and hyperas for the deep neural network. In addition, I have used the tpe.suggest algorithm, which acts as a surrogate model for the optimization.
• To implement the genetic algorithm. I have used the TPOT library, where the tpot classifier is used for applying the genetic algorithm on the machine learning model.

# Random Forest Classifier using hyperparameter search techniques:

Bayesian Optimization:

`search_space = {'criterion': hp.choice('criterion', c ),                'max_depth': hp.choice('max_depth',d),                'max_features': hp.choice('max_features', f),                'min_samples_leaf': hp.uniform('min_samples_leaf', 0, 0.5),                'min_samples_split' : hp.uniform ('min_samples_split', 0, 1),                'n_estimators' : hp.choice('n_estimators', n)}`
`def Optimization(search_space):estimators = search_space['n_estimators']criterion = search_space['criterion']depth = search_space['max_depth']features = search_space['max_features']leaf = search_space['min_samples_leaf']split = search_space['min_samples_split']rfc_model = RandomForestClassifier(criterion = criterion, max_depth=depth, max_features = features,min_samples_leaf = leaf, min_samples_split = split, n_estimators = estimators,)accuracy = cross_val_score(rfc_model, x_train, y_train, cv = 5).mean()return {'loss': -accuracy, 'status': STATUS_OK }`
`hyperparameters = fmin(fn=Optimization,  space=search_space,                  algo=tpe.suggest, max_evals = 100,                   trials= Trials())`
`search_space = {'n_estimators': n_estimators,'criterion': criterion,                'max_features': features,'max_depth': depth,                'min_samples_split': split,                'min_samples_leaf': leaf               }`
`rfc_tpot = TPOTClassifier(generations= 10, population_size= 24,           offspring_size= 12, verbosity= 2, early_stop= 12,           config_dict={'sklearn.ensemble.RandomForestClassifier':           search_space},cv = 5, scoring = 'accuracy'           )`

# A deep neural network architecture using hyperparameter search techniques

Bayesian Optimization

`space = {'Dense1': hp.choice('Dense1', hidden_units ),'Dense2': hp.choice('Dense2', hidden_units ),'Dense3': hp.choice('Dense3', hidden_units ),'Dense4': hp.choice('Dense4', hidden_units ),'Dense5': hp.choice('Dense5', hidden_units ),'Dense6': hp.choice('Dense6', hidden_units ),'Activation1': hp.choice('Activation1', activation ),'Activation2': hp.choice('Activation2', activation ),'Dropout1': hp.uniform('Dropout1', 0, 1),'Dropout2': hp.uniform('Dropout2', 0, 1),'Dropout3': hp.uniform('Dropout3', 0, 1),'Dropout4': hp.uniform('Dropout4', 0, 1),'Dropout5': hp.uniform('Dropout5', 0, 1),'Dropout6': hp.uniform('Dropout6', 0, 1),'hidden_layers': hp.choice('hidden_layers', hlayers),'Optimizer': hp.choice('Optimizer', optimizer),'learning_rate': hp.choice('learning_rate', lr),'epochs': hp.choice('epochs' , epochs),'batch_size': hp.choice('batch_size' , batch_size)}`
`def Optimization(space):  ### Define your model here   model.compile(loss='categorical_crossentropy',metrics='accuracy'],              optimizer=optim)model.fit(train_data, train_label,          batch_size = space['batch_size'],          epochs=space['epochs'], validation_split = 0.2)score, acc = model.evaluate(x_test, y_test, verbose=1)return {'loss': -acc, 'status': STATUS_OK, 'model': model}`
`search_space = {'hidden_layer_sizes': hidden_layer_sizes,                'activation': activation,'solver': optimizer,                'learning_rate_init': lr, 'batch_size' : batch_size               }`

# Observations/ Results

• Parallelism Capabilities: In bayesian optimization, the experiment in the current step depends on the information from the previous experiment because it needs to update the posterior once the additional data is added using the acquisition function and the surrogate model. Whereas in the genetic algorithm, multiple samples can be trained parallelly, and their evaluations could be used to select the best set of solutions. There is a concept called parallel genetic algorithm where multiple genetic algorithms will execute to solve a single task, and the best solution will be selected from each algorithm. Then these best solutions will be evaluated with each other, and the best among them is selected for training the model. This approach is also known as the ‘island model.’ Bayesian Optimization cannot exploit the parallelism, but genetic algorithm makes good use of parallelism.
• Computational Resources: To run any machine learning algorithm, we require computational resources. In Bayesian Optimization, it does not require a lot of computational resources compared to the genetic algorithm. In the genetic algorithm, to go from one generation to the next, it needs to train the same model on multiple hyperparameters. In contrast, Bayesian optimization is used to train a single model and update the posterior information, which does not require many computational resources. A genetic algorithm should be applied when there are enough computational resources; otherwise, it would be infeasible.
• Memory Requirement: Both the hyperparameter search techniques can solve complex optimization problems. But when the individual solutions become large, for example, in deep neural network architecture, the number of hyperparameters is more, then to store all the information about the multiple individuals is not feasible. At the time of the crossover, it requires all the individuals from the previous generation. We could think to store such an amount of data onto the disk but then reading the data from the disk makes the algorithm slower. Whereas in bayesian optimization, we are not required to store such an amount of data, it requires to store only prior distributions, and the posterior is updated in each step.
• Search Space Exploration: Both the hyperparameter search techniques do not guarantee the optimal solutions for the problem. Initially, some random sets of hyperparameters are selected in the genetic algorithm, and the model is trained on these hyperparameters. The searching of the next sets of hyperparameters depends on the mutation and genetic operators. The problem is that the genetic algorithm will be stuck at the local optima and not find the global optima. Similarly, Bayesian optimization does not guarantee the optimal solution. Still, it reduces the possibility of getting stuck at local optima by using the statistical mean and variance given by the surrogate model.
• Accuracy: Initially, I have implemented both models by selecting the hyperparameters by myself. The random forest classifier gives an accuracy of 73%, and a deep neural architecture gives 79% accuracy. When I implemented Bayesian optimization on these two models, RFC gives an accuracy of 84%, whereas the deep neural network gives an accuracy of 89%. Finally, on applying the genetic algorithm, RFC gives an accuracy of 92%, and deep neural network gives ab accuracy of 94%.
• Time Complexity: The time complexity of the genetic algorithm is O(gnm), where g is the number observation, n is the number of individuals at each generation, and m is the size of the individuals. So, the time complexity of the genetic algorithm is directly proportional to the population and its size. Whereas in Bayesian optimization, the time complexity id O(n^2d^2) where n is the number of samples on which the surrogate function is evaluated till now and d is the number of hyperparameters. So the time taken by bayesian optimization increases as the samples are added to the data.

# Conclusion:

Both the hyperparameter search techniques have their pros and cons. The genetic algorithm does not require any probabilistic model and directly works with the objective function. It has excellent parallelism capabilities. The genetic algorithm works very well when a solution is stored in the memory, and it will make it better over time. At the same time, it will require a lot of computational and memory resources. The Bayesian optimization mimics the objective function as the surrogate model by which it takes less time on the evaluation. It takes fewer experiments to reach a better value. But it is not able to exploit the parallelism because each experiment depends on the previous experiment.

# References

Jasper Snoek, Hugo Larochelle, Ryan P. Adams, Practical Bayesian Optimization of Machine Learning Algorithms, 2012.

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-- ## rohit patel

Pursuing Mtech CSE from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. I am interested towards data science and want to look forward in this field.